Friday, 9 September 2011



The cinema of Andhra Pradesh, also referred to as Telugu Cinema or Tollywood, is the Telugu film industry in India. The Telugu language film industry of Andhra Pradesh is one India's largest film industries in terms of films produced yearly. The Prasads IMAX theatre in Hyderabad has the biggest IMAX 3D screen in the world. The industry holds the Guinness Record of having the largest film production facility in the world. Brahmanandam, a Telugu actor, holds the Guinness record of acting in the most number of films in the same language.

1 Industry
1.1 Box office collections
1.2 Distribution
2 Dubbed films
3 Shift of industry from Madras to Hyderabad
4 History
4.1 Early development: 1912–1930
4.2 Rise of the talkie: 1931–1947
5 Awards
6 Guinness World Records
7 Studios in Hyderabad
8 See also
9 References

The Telugu cinema industry is based in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Chennai was used as a hub for both Tamil and Telugu cinema until the early 1970s,[citation needed] as it was the capital of Madras State. Even today many Telugu movies are shot in studios in Chennai. Now Hyderabad is the hub of the Telugu film industry, while Chennai remains the home of the Tamil film industry. The Telugu film industry produces the most films every year in India, with about 245 films produced in 2006.
To date, more than 11,567 films have been made. More than 50 Telugu films so far have been remade or dubbed into other Indian languages (see List of films remade or dubbed from the Telugu language).

Box office collections
The Telugu film industry accounts for 1% of the gross domestic product of Andhra Pradesh. There is a fair amount of dispersion among the Indian film industries. Many successful Telugu films have been remade by the Hindi and Tamil film industries. The industry also remakes a few Hindi, Tamil, and Malayalam movies. Many Tamil films are dubbed into Telugu on release. Given below is a table of the box office collections of the Telugu film industry, with figures in millions of Indian rupees and United States dollars.
Year Telugu box office (in million Rs.)
1980 819
1985 1,526
1990 3,333
1995 7,985
2000 14,011
2005 23,044

Telugu film distribution is divided into 12 areas:
Area Cities
Nizam Hyderabad
Nizamabad (Induru)
Warangal (aka Orugallu or Ekasila Nagaram)
Mahabubnagar (Palamuru)
Raichur (Karnataka)
Rayalaseema Kurnool
Bellary (Karnataka)
Guntur Guntur
East Godavari
West Godavari
Vizag Visakhapatnam
Tamil Nadu

Dubbed films
Tamil films are regularly dubbed into Telugu and have a decent market in Andhra Pradesh. There have been instances of dubbed films from Tamil overtaking profits of Telugu films in the state which made the Andhra government increase the entertainment tax for dubbed films. In 2005, the Telugu box office was entirely dominated by dubs from Tamil. The dubbed version of Enthiran (Robot) grossed 60 crore in Andhra Pradesh, becoming the second highest grossing film in the state. Tamil actors like Rajinikanth, Kamal Haasan, Vikram, Suriya and Karthi are quite popular in Tollywood as many of their films have been dubbed into Telugu.

Shift of industry from Madras to Hyderabad
Telugu cinema was established and developed in Chennai and until 1970 the industry was located in Chennai. Veteran actor Akkineni Nageswara Rao was the first person to come to Hyderabad and build a studio, which he named Annapurna Studios. By the early 1990s, the industry had completely shifted to Hyderabad.

Early development: 1912–1930
The Telugu film industry originated with silent film in 1912, with the production of Bhisma Pratighna. The film was directed by Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu and his son R. S. Prakash. The two would go on to produce and direct dozens of films throughout the decade, casting theater actors in major roles. They established a long-lasting precedent of focusing exclusively on religious themes; Nandanar, Gajendra Moksham, and Matsyavatar, three of their most famous productions, centered on religious figures, parables, and morals.

Rise of the talkie: 1931–1947

A still from the film Bhakta Prahlada (1931)

A still from Bhakta Potana played by Chittor V. Nagaiah, the first multilingual actor of India. He was also known as Paul Muni of India in the media. He was the first to portray lead actor roles in Telugu films before Indian Independence

N. T. Rama Rao played three pivotal roles — Karna, Duryodhana, and Krishna — in the film Daana Veera Soora Karna.
In 1931, the first Telugu film with audible dialogue, Bhakta Prahlada, was produced by H.M. Reddy. Popularly known as talkies, films with sound quickly grew in number and popularity. In 1934, the industry saw its first major commercial success with Lavakusa. Directed by C. Pullaiah and starring Parupalli Subbarao and Sriranjani in lead roles, the film attracted unprecedented numbers of viewers to theaters and thrust the young film industry into mainstream culture.
The success of Alam Ara encouraged Irani to diversify into regional language productions in Telugu and Tamil the same year. Ardeshir Irani's associate Hanumantha Muniappa Reddy directed Bhakta Prahalada, which was released six weeks ahead of the first Tamil talkie, Kalidas, which Reddy directed with a mixed cast of Telugu, Tamil and Hindi actors. Bhakta Prahlada had an all-Telugu cast featuring Munipalle Subbiah as Hiranyakasipa and Surabhi Kamalabai as Leelavathy. Both the films were made in Bombay.
By 1936, the mass appeal of film allowed directors to move away from religious and mythological themes. That year, under the direction of Krithiventi Nageswara Rao, Prema Vijayam, a film focusing on social issues, was released. Its success prompted the production of dozens of other immensely successful 'social films', notably 1939's Vandemataram and Maala Pilla. Touching on societal problems like the status of Untouchables and the practice of giving dowry, Telugu films increasingly focused on contemporary living: 29 of the 96 films released between 1937 and 1947 had social themes.
The outbreak of World War II and the subsequent resource scarcity caused the British Raj to impose a limit on the use of filmstrip in 1943 to 11,000 feet, a sharp reduction from the 20,000 feet that had been common till then. As a result, the number of films produced during the war was substantially lower than in previous years. Nonetheless, before the ban, an important shift occurred in the industry: independent studios formed, actors and actresses were signed to contracts limiting who they could work for, and films moved from social themes to folklore legends. 1942's Balanagamma typified these changes: the film featured fantasy elements of cultural lore, was produced by Gemini Studios, and its producers added a restricting clause to the lead actress' contract. By 1947, nearly all films were produced by studios with contracted actors.


National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Telugu
Nandi Awards
Filmfare Awards South
CineMAA Awards
Raghupathi Venkaiah Award
NTR National Award
Allu Rama Lingaiah Award
FNCC Awards
Santosham Film Awards

Guinness World Records

S. P. Balasubrahmanyam for singing most number of song recordings within a very short period.
Brahmanandam for acting in the most films in the same language.
Ramoji Film City for largest film production facility in the world.

Studios in Hyderabad

Ramoji Film City
Ramanaidu Studios
Annapurna Studios
Saradhi Studios
Ramakrishna Studios

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